Venetian glass, the multiplicity variety of glasswares made in Venice from the 13th century to the present, has always been seeing as exceptional in history from the anatomy of Venetian style glassmaking, with its distinctive qualities such as evident, brilliant glass and the use of coloured glass canes and enamels to decorate the objects. Venetians were able to identify and obtain the highest quality ingredients and protect their sources of supply. Although a glass blowers’ guild existed in Venice from 1224, the earliest extant specimens that can be dated with certainty are from the end of the 14th century. They excel in virtuosity creating colourful and elaborate forms. It is documented that in 1291 the glasshouses based in the historic centre of Venice worried about a risk of catching fire so moved across the lagoon to the island of Murano, where they have remained. The parternosteri, monks dedicated to creating rosary, remained in the districts [sestiere] of Castello and Cannaregio. The capture of Constantinople by the crusaders in 1204 and by the Ottomans in 1453 brought an influx of Byzantine glassworkers to Venice. Venice, between centuries, besides the fluctuating market, retain the primate of glassware and beads; glassmaking styles and techniques was no simple fashion fad, in fact, during the Renaissance. They impacted the historical context of the time.
Around the 15th-century efforts focus to reach perfection in the Cristallo, clear and colourless glass with a superb clear in appearance, 1440 by making it from quartz pebbles rather than ordinary sand with all its impurities. This material was stronger and was possible to obtain a tinner. Venetians taking from the paternosteri and margheriteri, the beads and paternoster maker, and the trading beads technique learn to decorate with the coloured cane, filigranes and the diamond point following up the Roman tradition. By the 16th century they master the techniques of adding colour to crystal with metal stamps and specific mould, then 24k gilding and enamelling, most of the secrets in making were guarded, severe penalties were meted out to defecting workmen. Venetian craftsmen thanks to their fine art mastery to create elaborate pieces maintained Superb items from the 16th century include millefiori [murrine’s mosaic] technique items, an ancient technique that bond together different coloured glass cane, each element section reveals diverse small multicoloured flower-like design. Another impressive technique used was Calcedonio, a method of simulating amazingly marble and other stones; Latticinio, in which rods of opaque white glass were incorporated in the body of the glass vessel and worked in patterns.
The staple products of Venetian glassblowers in the 16th and 17th centuries were drinking glasses; their peculiarly Venetian characteristic was the elaborate working of the stem with tools such as pincers while the glass was still malleable. This type of drinking glass and some other vessels with elaborately flared bowls are usually called banqueters (“flower holders”). In spite of the restrictions on the migration of workmen, many Venetian glassmakers did in fact defect, notably to Altare near Genoa. The techniques so jealously guarded became common knowledge; and from the 16th century various countries, including France, Germany, England, and the Netherlands, produced their own versions of Venetian glass types, façon de Venise [“Venetian fashion”].
In the 18th century competition from other countries, especially Bohemia, caused somewhat of a decline in the prestige of Venetian glass, although 17th-century types continued to be reproduced along with mirrors and beads. Thereafter, in the 19th century, there was a resurgence, which brought a breath of fresh air and it revitalizes the Mercat. During the 20th century, old techniques such as latticinio were employed with the continued skill to produce some ancient glass as